Rare Photos of Moscow From the Late 19th Century

As a testament to this important era, a collection of rare photographs offers a unique glimpse of Moscow of bygone years.

Architecturally, Moscow was also undergoing a metamorphosis. In 1812 Napoleon's army set fire to the city, causing widespread destruction.

However, by the end of the 19th century, ambitious reconstruction projects were well underway.

Landmarks such as the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, the Bolshoi Theatre, and Moscow State University were built during this period and continue to define Moscow's skyline.

The Moscow Stock Exchange was established in 1837. The beginning of the railway age with the emancipation of the serfs in 1861 and the opening of the line to Saint Petersburg in 1851 significantly increased labor mobility, and large numbers of peasants began to move from the villages to Moscow.

The population, which had reached 336,000 in 1835, nearly doubled to 602,000 in 1871 and reached 978,000 by 1897.

With trunk lines to all parts of European Russia, Moscow became the center of Russia's railways.

Many new factories, especially textile factories, began operating outside the barrier.

Heavy engineering and metal industries also developed in the 1890s. Between 1897 and 1915 Moscow doubled again in size to a population of 1,983,700.

The later 19th century was a period of ostentatious construction by public bodies and wealthy private individuals in various exemplary "Old Russian" styles and the so-called Modern style.

The Town Hall (meeting place of the Gorodskaya Duma, former site of the Central Lenin Museum), the State Historical Museum and the Upper Trading Rose (now GUM) date from this period.

The Revolution of 1905 saw a small-scale rebellion in Moscow and an attempt to take over Nikolayev (now Saint Petersburg) station; The rebellion was brutally crushed.

In 1917, although a Council of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies was established in Moscow, the city remained relatively quiet until the Bolshevik seizure of power in Petrograd on October 25, with fighting in Moscow immediately following.

The military cadets held out in the Kremlin for some time, but by November 3 (November 16, new style) they were overpowered and Bolshevik power was firmly established.

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